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Massachusettsan recommended by the U. GPO [10]. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston , which is the most populous city in New England. It is home to the Greater Boston metropolitan area, which is known for being rich with American history , academia , and industry.

What became known as Plymouth was colonized in by the Pilgrims of the Mayflower. In , the Massachusetts Bay Colony —taking its name from the indigenous Massachusett people —established settlements in Boston and Salem. In , the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem Witch Trials , which is now considered an infamous case of mass hysteria. Before the American Civil War , Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist , temperance , [55] and transcendentalist [56] movements.

Department of Public Health. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States , [61] with the largest financial endowment of any university. This comesfrom the name of the Moswetuset Hummock meaning “hill shaped like an arrowhead” in Quincy , where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish a hired English military officer and Squanto a member of the Patuxet band of the Wamponoag people , who have since died off due to contagious disease brought by colonizers met Chief Chickatawbut in While the designation “Commonwealth” forms part of the state’s official name, in modern times it has no practical implications [75] and Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states.

This was in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. The name “State of Massachusetts Bay” appeared in the first draft, which was ultimately rejected. It was also chosen to include the “Cape Islands” in reference to Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket —from to , they were seen as additional and separate entities confined within the Commonwealth.

Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family , including: Wampanoag , Narragansett , Nipmuc , Pocomtuc , Mahican , and Massachusett. In the early s, European colonizers caused virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox , measles , influenza , and perhaps leptospirosis in what is now known as the northeastern region of the United States.

The first English colonizers in Massachusetts, the Puritans , arrived on the Mayflower [84] at Plymouth in This was the second permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, after the Jamestown Colony.

The “First Thanksgiving” was celebrated by the Puritans after their first harvest in the ” New World” that they had colonized and lasted for three days. They were soon followed by other Puritans, who colonized the Massachusetts Bay Colony –now known as Boston–in The Puritans believed the Church of England needed to be purified and experienced harassment due to being disliked by English authority.

The Massachusetts Bay banished dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams due to religious and political conflict. In , Williams colonized what is now known as Rhode Island , and Hutchinson joined him there several years later. Religious intolerance continued, and among those who objected to this later in the century were the English Quaker preachers Alice and Thomas Curwen , who were publicly flogged and imprisoned in Boston in In , Massachusetts expanded inland significantly.

The Commonwealth acquired the Connecticut River Valley settlement of Springfield , which had recently disputed with—and defected from—its original administrators, the Connecticut Colony. Currency was another issue in the colonies. In the Massachusetts legislature authorized John Hull to produce coinage mintmaster.

He asked that a writ of Quo warranto a legal action requiring the defendant to show what authority they have for exercising some right, power, or franchise they claim to hold be issued against Massachusetts for the violations.

In , the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were united along with present-day Maine , which had previously been divided between Massachusetts and New York into the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The most destructive earthquake yet known in New England occurred in , causing considerable damage across Massachusetts.

Massachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from Great Britain ; colonists in Massachusetts had long uneasy relations with the British monarchy, including open rebellion under the Dominion of New England in the s. His first victory was the Siege of Boston in the winter of —76, after which the British were forced to evacuate the city. Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1, letters of marque , issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during the American Revolution.

Nearly vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about British ships. Bostonian John Adams , known as the “Atlas of Independence”, [] was highly involved in both separation from Britain and the Constitution of Massachusetts , which effectively the Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker cases as interpreted by William Cushing made Massachusetts the first state to abolish slavery.

David McCullough points out that an equally important feature was its placing for the first time the courts as a co-equal branch separate from the executive. Vermont became a state in but did not fully ban slavery until with the Vermont Personal Liberty Law.

The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of [] made Pennsylvania the first state to abolish slavery by statute. Later, Adams was active in early American foreign affairs and succeeded Washington as the second United States President. From to , an armed uprising, known as Shays’ Rebellion led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays wrought havoc throughout Massachusetts and ultimately attempted to seize the Federal armory.

In , Maine separated from Massachusetts and entered the Union as the 23rd state as a result of the ratification of the Missouri Compromise. During the 19th century, Massachusetts became a national leader in the American Industrial Revolution , with factories around cities such as Lowell and Boston producing textiles and shoes, and factories around Springfield producing tools, paper, and textiles.

Canals and railroads were used for transporting raw materials and finished goods. Although Massachusetts was the first slave-holding colony dating back to the early s, in the years leading up to the American Civil War , Massachusetts was a center of progressivist and abolitionist activity. Horace Mann made the state’s school system a national model.

Although significant opposition to abolitionism existed early on in Massachusetts, resulting in anti-abolitionist riots between and , [] opposition to slavery gradually increased throughout the next few decades. Anthony in Adams, Massachusetts. The works of such abolitionists contributed to Massachusetts’s actions during the Civil War. Massachusetts was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a Black regiment with White officers, the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment.

Although the American stock market had sustained steep losses the last week in October , Tuesday, October 29 is remembered as the beginning of the Great Depression. The Boston Stock Exchange , drawn into the whirlpool of panic selling that beset the New York Stock Exchange, lost over 25 percent of its value in two days of frenzied trading.

The BSE, nearly years old at the time, had helped raise the capital that had funded many of the Commonwealth’s factories, railroads, and businesses. Allen appointed John C. Hull the first Securities Director of Massachusetts. His term would end in With the departure of several manufacturing companies, the area’s industrial economy began to decline during the early 20th century.

By the s, competition from the South and Midwest, followed by the Great Depression , led to the collapse of the three main industries in Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, and precision mechanics. Massachusetts manufactured 3. Suburbanization flourished, and by the s, the Route corridor was dotted with high-technology companies who recruited graduates of the area’s many elite institutions of higher education.

Commonly known as “the Big Dig “, it was, at the time, the biggest federal highway project ever approved. The Kennedy family was prominent in Massachusetts politics in the 20th century. Children of businessman and ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. Kennedy , who was a senator and U. Bush , 41st President of the United States — was born in Milton in On May 17, , Massachusetts became the first state in the U. Supreme Court’s affirmation of same-sex marriage in the United States in Another eight years later, Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren was a frontrunner in the Democratic primaries for the Presidential Election, but suspended her campaign and then endorsed presumptive nominee Joe Biden.

Two pressure cooker bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, , at around pm EDT. The explosions killed three people and injured an estimated others. The ensuing manhunt ended on April 19 when thousands of law enforcement officers searched a block area of nearby Watertown. Dzhokhar later said he was motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs and learned to build explosive devices from Inspire , the online magazine of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

Massachusetts is the 7th-smallest state in the United States. It is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and has an area of 10, square miles 27, km 2 , Several large bays distinctly shape its coast. Boston is the largest city, at the inmost point of Massachusetts Bay , and the mouth of the Charles River. Despite its small size, Massachusetts features numerous topographically distinctive regions. The large coastal plain of the Atlantic Ocean in the eastern section of the state contains Greater Boston , along with most of the state’s population, [45] as well as the distinctive Cape Cod peninsula.

To the west lies the hilly, rural region of Central Massachusetts , and beyond that, the Connecticut River Valley. Along the western border of Western Massachusetts lies the highest elevated part of the state, the Berkshires , forming a portion of the northern terminus of the Appalachian Mountains.

The U. National Park Service administers a number of natural and historical sites in Massachusetts. The primary biome of inland Massachusetts is temperate deciduous forest. A number of species are doing well in the increasingly urbanized Massachusetts. Peregrine falcons utilize office towers in larger cities as nesting areas, [] and the population of coyotes , whose diet may include garbage and roadkill, has been increasing in recent decades.

In more rural areas in the western part of Massachusetts, larger mammals such as moose and black bears have returned, largely due to reforestation following the regional decline in agriculture. Massachusetts is located along the Atlantic Flyway , a major route for migratory waterfowl along the eastern coast.

Small offshore islands and beaches are home to roseate terns and are important breeding areas for the locally threatened piping plover. Since , there has been a significant increase in the number of Great white sharks spotted and tagged in the coastal waters off of Cape Cod.

Freshwater fish species in Massachusetts include bass , carp , catfish , and trout , while saltwater species such as Atlantic cod , haddock , and American lobster populate offshore waters. The European corn borer, a significant agricultural pest, was first found in North America near Boston, Massachusetts in Most of Massachusetts has a humid continental climate , with cold winters and warm summers.

Far southeast coastal areas are the broad transition zone to Humid Subtropical climates. The warm to hot summers render the oceanic climate rare in this transition, only applying to exposed coastal areas such as on the peninsula of Barnstable County. Frosts are frequent all winter, even in coastal areas due to prevailing inland winds.

Due to its location near the Atlantic , Massachusetts is vulnerable to nor’easters , hurricanes and tropical storms. Climate change in Massachusetts will affect both urban and rural environments, including forestry, fisheries, agriculture, and coastal development.



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Wardenclyffe Tower (–), also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early experimental wireless transmission station designed and built by Nikola Tesla on Long Island in –, located in the village of Shoreham, New intended to transmit messages, telephony and even facsimile images across the Atlantic to England and to ships at sea based on his . Free user limit Activate Enterprise Edition Features available to Starter and Bronze subscribers Release notes Release notes Release notes Release notes Release notes Release notes Backup and Restore SPDX license list import Import repositories Inactive project deletion Move repositories Integrity check. Massachusetts (English: / ˌ m æ s ə ˈ tʃ uː s ɪ t s / (), /-z ɪ t s /, Massachusett: Muhsachuweesee [məhsatʃəwiːsiː]), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the United borders on the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Maine to the east, Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the. For any academic help you need, feel free to talk to our team for assistance and you will never regret your decision to work with us. We are reliable and established. You can entrust all your academic work to course help online for original and high quality papers submitted on time. We have worked with thousands of students from all over the world. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. Around 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kill about .

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The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a secretive power elite with a globalist agenda is conspiring to eventually rule the world through an authoritarian one-world government—which will replace sovereign nation-states —and an all-encompassing propaganda whose ideology hails the establishment of the New World Order as the culmination of history’s progress.

Many influential historical and contemporary figures have therefore been alleged to be part of a cabal that operates through many front organizations to orchestrate significant political and financial events, ranging from causing systemic crises to pushing through controversial policies, at both national and international levels, as steps in an ongoing plot to achieve world domination. Before the early s, New World Order conspiracism was limited to two American countercultures, primarily the militantly anti-government right, and secondarily the part of fundamentalist Christianity concerned with the end-time emergence of the Antichrist.

During the 20th century, political figures such as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill used the term ” new world order ” to refer to a new period of history characterized by a dramatic change in world political thought and in the global balance of power after World War I and World War II.

Such collective initiatives manifested in the formation of intergovernmental organizations such as the League of Nations in , the United Nations UN in , and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO in , along with international regimes such as the Bretton Woods system and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT , implemented to maintain a cooperative balance of power and facilitate reconciliation between nations to prevent the prospect of another global conflict.

These cosmopolitan efforts to instill liberal internationalism were regularly criticized and opposed by American paleoconservative business nationalists from the s on. Progressives welcomed international organizations and regimes such as the United Nations in the aftermath of the two World Wars, but argued that these initiatives suffered from a democratic deficit and were therefore inadequate not only to prevent another world war but to foster global justice , as the UN was chartered to be a free association of sovereign nation-states rather than a transition to democratic world government.

Thus, cosmopolitan activists around the globe, perceiving the IGOs as too ineffectual for global change, formed a world federalist movement. British writer and futurist H. Wells went further than progressives in the s, by appropriating and redefining the term “new world order” as a synonym for the establishment of a technocratic world state and of a planned economy , garnering popularity in state socialist circles.

During the Second Red Scare , both secular and Christian right American agitators, largely influenced by the work of Canadian conspiracy theorist William Guy Carr , increasingly embraced and spread dubious fears of Freemasons , Illuminati and Jews as the alleged driving forces behind an ” international communist conspiracy.

The question is only whether world government will be achieved by consent or by conquest. Right-wing populist advocacy groups with a paleoconservative world-view, such as the John Birch Society , disseminated a multitude of conspiracy theories in the s claiming that the governments of both the United States and the Soviet Union were controlled by a cabal of corporate internationalists , “greedy” bankers and corrupt politicians who were intent on using the UN as the vehicle to create a “One World Government”.

This anti-globalist conspiracism fueled the campaign for U. American writer Mary M. Federal Reserve in by international bankers, whom she claimed later formed the Council on Foreign Relations in as a shadow government.

At the time the booklet was published, many readers would have interpreted “international bankers” as a reference to a postulated “international Jewish banking conspiracy ” masterminded by the Rothschild family. After the fall of communism in the early s, the de facto subject of New World Order conspiracism shifted from crypto-communists , perceived to be plotting to establish an atheistic world communist government, to globalists, perceived to be plotting to implement a collectivist generally, unified world government ultimately controlled by an untouchable oligarchy of international bankers, corrupt politicians, and corporatists , or the United Nations itself.

The shift in perception was inspired by growing opposition to corporate internationalism on the American right in the s. Bush described his objectives for post-Cold War global governance in cooperation with post-Soviet states. He stated:. Until now, the world we’ve known has been a world divided—a world of barbed wire and concrete block, conflict, and the cold war. Now, we can see a new world coming into view.

A world in which there is the genuine prospect of new world order. In the words of Winston Churchill, a “world order” in which “the principles of justice and fair play A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations.

The New York Times observed that progressives were denouncing this new world order as a rationalization of American imperial ambitions in the Middle East at the time. At the same time conservatives rejected any new security arrangements altogether and fulminated about any possibility of a UN revival. Fundamentalist Christian groups interpreted Bush’s words as signaling the End Times. At the same time, more secular theorists approached it from an anti-communist and anti-collectivist standpoint and feared for hegemony over all countries by the United Nations.

American televangelist Pat Robertson , with his best-selling book The New World Order , became the most prominent Christian disseminator of conspiracy theories about recent American history. He describes a scenario where Wall Street , the Federal Reserve System, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Bilderberg Group and the Trilateral Commission control the flow of events from behind the scenes, constantly nudging people covertly in the direction of world government for the Antichrist.

It was observed that, throughout the s, the galvanizing language used by conspiracy theorists such as Linda Thompson , Mark Koernke and Robert K. Spear led to militancy and the rise of the American militia movement. This led to the substantial growth of New World Order conspiracism, with it retroactively finding its way into the previously apolitical literature of numerous Kennedy assassinologists , ufologists , lost land theorists and—partially inspired by fears surrounding the “Satanic panic” — occultists.

From the mids onward, the amorphous appeal of those subcultures transmitted New World Order conspiracism to a larger audience of seekers of stigmatized knowledge , with the common characteristic of disillusionment of political efficacy. From the mids to the early s, Hollywood conspiracy-thriller television shows and films also played a role in introducing a general audience to various fringe , esoteric theories related to New World Order conspiracism—which by that point had developed to include black helicopters , FEMA ” concentration camps “, etc.

Following the start of the 21st century, and specifically during the lates financial crisis , many politicians and pundits, such as Gordon Brown [20] and Henry Kissinger , [21] used the term ” new world order ” in their advocacy for a comprehensive reform of the global financial system and their calls for a “New Bretton Woods” taking into account emerging markets such as China and India. These public declarations reinvigorated New World Order conspiracism, culminating in talk-show host Sean Hannity stating on his Fox News program Hannity that the “conspiracy theorists were right”.

In , American film directors Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel released New World Order , a critically acclaimed documentary film which explores the world of conspiracy theorists—such as American radio host Alex Jones —who vigorously oppose what they perceive as an emerging New World Order.

There are numerous systemic conspiracy theories through which the concept of a New World Order is viewed. The following is a list of the major ones in roughly chronological order: [27]. Since the 19th century, many apocalyptic millennial Christian eschatologists , starting with John Nelson Darby , have predicted a globalist conspiracy to impose a tyrannical New World Order governing structure as the fulfillment of prophecies about the ” end time ” in the Bible , specifically in the Book of Ezekiel , the Book of Daniel , the Olivet discourse found in the Synoptic Gospels , 2 Esdras and Revelation Some of the most vocal critics of end-time conspiracy theories come from within Christianity.

Hughes argues that “New World Order” rhetoric libels the Christian faith, since the “New World Order” as defined by Christian conspiracy theorists has no basis in the Bible whatsoever. Furthermore, he argues that not only is this idea unbiblical, it is positively anti-biblical and fundamentally anti-Christian , because by misinterpreting key passages in the Book of Revelation, it turns a comforting message about the coming kingdom of God into one of fear, panic and despair in the face of an allegedly approaching one-world government.

Gomes , caution Christian fundamentalists that a ” spirit of fear ” can distort scripture and history through dangerously combining biblical literalism , apocalyptic timetables , demonization and oppressive prejudices, [30] [31] while Camp warns of the “very real danger that Christians could pick up some extra spiritual baggage” by credulously embracing conspiracy theories.

Freemasonry is one of the world’s oldest secular fraternal organizations and arose in Great Britain during the 18th century. Over the years, several allegations and conspiracy theories have been directed towards Freemasonry, including the allegation that Freemasons have a hidden political agenda and are conspiring to bring about a New World Order, a world government organized according to Masonic principles or governed only by Freemasons.

The esoteric nature of Masonic symbolism and rites led to Freemasons first being accused of secretly practicing Satanism in the late 18th century. Despite the fact that Taxil admitted that his claims were all a hoax , they were and still are believed and repeated by numerous conspiracy theorists and had a huge influence on subsequent anti-Masonic claims about Freemasonry.

Some conspiracy theorists eventually speculated that some Founding Fathers of the United States , such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin , were having Masonic sacred geometric designs interwoven into American society, particularly in the Great Seal of the United States , the United States one-dollar bill , the architecture of National Mall landmarks and the streets and highways of Washington, D.

Freemasons rebut these claims of a Masonic conspiracy. Freemasonry, which promotes rationalism , places no power in occult symbols themselves, and it is not a part of its principles to view the drawing of symbols, no matter how large, as an act of consolidating or controlling power. Therefore, the designers were drawing from common esoteric symbols.

Although the European continental branch of Freemasonry has organizations that allow political discussion within their Masonic Lodges, Masonic researcher Trevor W.

McKeown argues that the accusations ignore several facts. Firstly, the many Grand Lodges are independent and sovereign, meaning they act independently and do not have a common agenda. The points of belief of the various lodges often differ. Secondly, famous Freemasons have always held views that span the political spectrum and show no particular pattern or preference. As such, the term “Masonic government” is erroneous; there is no consensus among Freemasons about what an ideal government would look like.

The movement consisted of advocates of freethought , secularism , liberalism , republicanism , and gender equality , recruited from the German Masonic Lodges , who sought to teach rationalism through mystery schools.

In , the order was infiltrated, broken up, and suppressed by the government agents of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria , in his preemptive campaign to neutralize the threat of secret societies ever becoming hotbeds of conspiracies to overthrow the Bavarian monarchy and its state religion , Roman Catholicism. In the late 18th century, reactionary conspiracy theorists, such as Scottish physicist John Robison and French Jesuit priest Augustin Barruel , began speculating that the Illuminati had survived their suppression and become the masterminds behind the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.

The Illuminati were accused of being subversives who were attempting to orchestrate a revolutionary wave secretly in Europe and the rest of the world to spread the most radical ideas and movements of the Enlightenment— anti-clericalism , anti-monarchism , and anti-patriarchalism —and to create a world noocracy and cult of reason. During the 19th century, fear of an Illuminati conspiracy was a real concern of the European ruling classes , and their oppressive reactions to this unfounded fear provoked in the very revolutions they sought to prevent.

During the interwar period of the 20th century, fascist propagandists, such as British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster and American socialite Edith Starr Miller , not only popularized the myth of an Illuminati conspiracy but claimed that it was a subversive secret society which served the Jewish elites that supposedly propped up both finance capitalism and Soviet communism in order to divide and rule the world. American evangelist Gerald Burton Winrod and other conspiracy theorists within the fundamentalist Christian movement in the United States—which emerged in the s as a backlash against the principles of Enlightenment secular humanism , modernism , and liberalism—became the main channel of dissemination of Illuminati conspiracy theories in the U.

Right-wing populists , such as members of the John Birch Society , subsequently began speculating that some collegiate fraternities Skull and Bones , gentlemen’s clubs Bohemian Club , and think tanks Council on Foreign Relations , Trilateral Commission of the American upper class are front organizations of the Illuminati, which they accuse of plotting to create a New World Order through a one-world government. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic canard , originally published in Russian in , alleging a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy to achieve world domination.

The text purports to be the minutes of the secret meetings of a cabal of Jewish masterminds, which has co-opted Freemasonry and is plotting to rule the world on behalf of all Jews because they believe themselves to be the chosen people of God. The Protocols reflect themes similar to more general critiques of Enlightenment liberalism by conservative aristocrats who support monarchies and state religions. The interpretation intended by the publication of The Protocols is that if one peels away the layers of the Masonic conspiracy , past the Illuminati , one finds the rotten Jewish core.

Numerous polemicists, such as Irish journalist Philip Graves in a article in The Times , and British academic Norman Cohn in his book Warrant for Genocide , have proven The Protocols to be both a hoax and a clear case of plagiarism.

There is general agreement that Russian-French writer and political activist Matvei Golovinski fabricated the text for Okhrana , the secret police of the Russian Empire , as a work of counter-revolutionary propaganda prior to the Russian Revolution , by plagiarizing, almost word for word in some passages, from The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu , a 19th-century satire against Napoleon III of France written by French political satirist and Legitimist militant Maurice Joly.

Responsible for feeding many antisemitic and anti-Masonic mass hysterias of the 20th century, The Protocols has been influential in the development of some conspiracy theories, including some New World Order theories, and repeatedly appears in certain contemporary conspiracy literature. They speculated that this secret society was working behind the scenes to establish a theocratic ” United States of Europe “. Politically and religiously unified through the imperial cult of a Merovingian Great Monarch —supposedly descended from a Jesus bloodline —who occupies both the throne of Europe and the Holy See , this “Holy European Empire” would become the hyperpower of the 21st century.

Skeptics argue that the current gambit of contemporary conspiracy theorists who use The Protocols is to claim that they “really” come from some group other than the Jews, such as fallen angels or alien invaders. Although it is hard to determine whether the conspiracy-minded actually believe this or are simply trying to sanitize a discredited text, skeptics argue that it does not make much difference, since they leave the actual, antisemitic text unchanged.

The result is to give The Protocols credibility and circulation. During the second half of Britain’s “imperial century” between and , English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician Cecil Rhodes advocated the British Empire reannexing the United States of America and reforming itself into an ” Imperial Federation ” to bring about a hyperpower and lasting world peace.

In his first will, written in at the age of 23, he expressed his wish to fund a secret society known as the Society of the Elect that would advance this goal:. In , thirteen years after “his now-famous will,” Rhodes elaborated on the same idea: establishment of “England everywhere,” which would “ultimately lead to the cessation of all wars, and one language throughout the world. Rhodes also concentrated on the Rhodes Scholarship , which had British statesman Alfred Milner as one of its trustees.

Established in , the original goal of the trust fund was to foster peace among the great powers by creating a sense of fraternity and a shared world view among future British, American, and German leaders by having enabled them to study for free at the University of Oxford. Milner and British official Lionel George Curtis were the architects of the Round Table movement , a network of organizations promoting closer union between Britain and it’s self-governing colonies.

To this end, Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in June and, with his book The Commonwealth of God , began advocating for the creation of an imperial federation that eventually reannexes the U.

The Council on Foreign Relations began in with a group of New York academics who were asked by President Woodrow Wilson to offer options for the foreign policy of the United States in the interwar period. Originally envisioned as a group of American and British scholars and diplomats, some of whom belonging to the Round Table movement, it was a subsequent group of New York financiers, manufacturers, and international lawyers organized in June by Nobel Peace Prize recipient and U.

The first of the council’s projects was a quarterly journal launched in September , called Foreign Affairs. It is a private organization established to foster closer cooperation among the United States, Europe, and Japan.

In the s, right-wing populist individuals and groups with a paleoconservative worldview, such as members of the John Birch Society , were the first to combine and spread a business nationalist critique of corporate internationalists networked through think tanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations with a grand conspiracy theory casting them as front organizations for the Round Table of the “Anglo-American Establishment “, which are financed by an “international banking cabal” that has supposedly been plotting from the late 19th century on to impose an oligarchic new world order through a global financial system.

Anti- globalist conspiracy theorists therefore fear that international bankers are planning to eventually subvert the independence of the U. The research findings of historian Carroll Quigley , author of the book Tragedy and Hope , are taken by both conspiracy theorists of the American Old Right W. Cleon Skousen and New Left Carl Oglesby to substantiate this view, even though Quigley argued that the Establishment is not involved in a plot to implement a one-world government but rather British and American benevolent imperialism driven by the mutual interests of economic elites in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Quigley also argued that, although the Round Table still exists today , its position in influencing the policies of world leaders has been much reduced from its heyday during World War I and slowly waned after the end of World War II and the Suez Crisis. Today the Round Table is largely a ginger group , designed to consider and gradually influence the policies of the Commonwealth of Nations , but faces strong opposition.

Furthermore, in American society after , the problem, according to Quigley, was that no elite was in charge and acting responsibly.


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