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An actual free market, not one rigged by a handful globalist big bankers and hedge funds”. On the evening of February 19, Gab’s website briefly went offline, originally without explanation. On February 26, around a week after Gab briefly went offline, the company published a blog post denying a data breach had taken place.
In the post, they wrote that they had been contacted by unnamed reporters who asked about a data breach that may have exposed an archive of posts, direct messages , profiles, and hashed passwords on Gab.
He also accused the reporters of working with a hacker to hurt the company and its users. On February 28, DDoSecrets revealed “GabLeaks”, a collection of more than 70 gigabytes of data from Gab, including more than 40 million posts, passwords, private messages, and other leaked information.
In response, Torba acknowledged the data breach, said that his Gab account had been “compromised”, and that “the entire company is all hands investigating what happened and working to trace and patch the problem”. We need to pray for these people. The company had previously open sourced Gab’s source code in a Git repository which included all historical commits; on March 1, they took the repository offline and replaced it with a zipfile that did not include commit history.
On March 8, JaXpArO again compromised verified accounts on Gab, posting a message to their feeds addressed to Torba, which said the service had been “fully compromised” the previous week and accused him of lying to Gab’s users.
By reusing these old tokens, the attacker was able to post statuses in an 8-minute period today”. Former Intercept reporter Glenn Greenwald criticized the publication for exploiting what he called an invasion of privacy, which he said contrasted with The Intercept ‘s origins during the Snowden leaks. In early December, Torba claimed that Gab’s back-end system was under a cyberattack by ” porn bots”. Torba called it “the most sophisticated attack we have seen in five years”, adding that “the timing of it is incredibly interesting given that Truth Social and Rumble both raised a boatload of cash this week from hedge funds to compete with Gab”.
On December 4, Torba said that “All new Gab accounts must now be manually approved by our team until further notice”. According to The Daily Beast , “It is unclear whether such a cyberattack took place or what specific “bots” the Gab CEO was referring to but a casual search of the platform does show numerous accounts advertising “escort” services. Torba received backlash from Gab users over the sponsorship, with many pointing out that Fuentes had recently made harsh comments about Gab users, including one comment calling users “fucking retarded” and another comment stating: “Average IQ on Gab is like 50”.
Many of Gab’s donors said that they would stop funding Gab. In response to the backlash, Torba said that “Controversy is attention. Attention is influence” and that “The point of marketing is to influence people to get off Big Tech and get on Gab.
In order to do that I need their attention. Torba also falsely claimed that Gab is “the one place on the internet where you can find RT News” when RT also has a presence on video sharing platform Rumble. You solve that problem with Starlink. Together we can build infrastructure for a free speech internet. On May 15, , after the Buffalo shooting that killed seven Black people, Torba told his followers that procreation is the best solution to the great replacement and White genocide ,  both of which are unfounded conspiracy theories.
In an email to The New York Times regarding a July article about the rise of white Christian nationalism , Torba wrote, “Jesus Christ is King of Kings and we are going to lawfully, peacefully, and democratically take back this country and our culture in his name” and that “[t]here is absolutely nothing you or any of the other powers and principalities can do to stop us.
As a result of the payments, every new account on Gab automatically followed Mastriano’s account. On February 24, ,  Gab launched a browser extension called Dissenter, an aggregation and discussion service which allows Gab users to make comments about any webpage including news articles, YouTube videos, and individual social media posts.
Dissenter describes itself as “a free, open-source utility that allows people to dissent from orthodoxy and express what they are really thinking, without fear of reprisal”. This creates a discussion page where users can post a comment or “Dissent” , and the comments can be up- or down-voted by other users of the site. The Dissenter website also features a news ticker on which users can follow current events. In a minute Periscope video accompanying the launch, Andrew Torba said that he expected Dissenter to be banned from extension stores and mentioned that Gab might build its own web browser in the future that has Dissenter built-in.
In a statement to the Columbia Journalism Review , a Mozilla spokesperson said: “Mozilla does not endorse hate speech, and we do not permit our platforms to be used to promote such content”. Following the extension’s launch, Ana Valens of The Daily Dot described it as an “extension for the alt-right” to “mobilize against journalists, critics, and progressive websites”. The site has attracted far-right or alt-right users who have been banned or suspended from other services.
Following the Christchurch mosque shootings and a reduced tolerance on other social media for hate speech, several members of United Patriots Front , an Australian far-right extremist organization, urged their supporters to follow them on Gab after being banned from Twitter and Facebook.
Former Gab users include white nationalist political candidate Paul Nehlen , who was removed from the site for doxing the man behind the “Ricky Vaughn” Twitter account;  and hacker, internet troll, and former Daily Stormer writer Andrew “Weev” Auernheimer , who was banned for calling for genocide against Jews and endorsing terrorist Timothy McVeigh. Torba has described the average Gab user as “a Conservative Christian with a family and interests in hunting, fishing, cars, camping, news, politics, rural living, homeschooling, privacy, free speech, cryptocurrency, guns, and cooking”.
In early , a cross-university group released a research study on posts made to the site. According to that study, the site hosted a high volume of racism and hate speech,  and primarily “attracts alt-right users, conspiracy theorists, and other trolls”. The authors also performed an automated search using Hatebase and found “hate words” in 5. A paper authored by behavioral researchers that was presented at the SBP-BRiMS collected and analyzed “several million Gab messages” posted on the Gab website from the platform’s launch in August to February The researchers then divided the posts into 33 groups, including topics such as pop culture.
The researchers also found that the largest subcategory within politics was “Ideology, religion and race”, comprising According to paper co-author William D. Adler , a political science professor at Northeastern Illinois University , the subcategory “Ideology, religion, and race” “includes topics such as changing racial demographics, threats to Christianity, and concerns about Jewish influence”, adding “It’s a lot of what you might think of as white nationalism”.
Other subcategories within politics included conversations about “Trump, Clinton and conspiracies”, comprising 5. The researchers also linked Gab’s growth to the far-right. According to Alder, Gab’s free speech rhetoric is “part of the game here, of course”, adding that “They don’t want to say [what they’re really doing] out loud, so they say ‘free speech, free speech. There are no Stalinist apologia , for example, nor calls for violent Communist revolution. More, there is not an equivalent on the left for Gab, or for the other right wing social media networks like WrongThink modeled on Facebook or GoyFundMe a right wing Kickstarter , which even has an implicitly anti-Semitic name.
Extremist social media bubbles are not a both sides problem; they are a right-wing phenomenon”. The study also found that while users who move to these platforms have their audience potentially reduced, the users exhibit increased activity and toxicity than they did previously.
In June , the Lowy Institute noted of Gab’s userbase that “Regardless of which narrative a user in Gab’s far-right community ascribes to, a shared sense of techno-social persecution is what draws them in and unites them.
These users feel safe in the knowledge that they can “speak freely” on the platform, with little fear of being banned or even critiqued, regardless of how extreme their views are”. The report found that, during this time period, more than , tweets were posted that linked to Gab’s website shared by more than 32, users with a potential reach of more than million views.
The report also found that the fifty most shared links to Gab on Twitter “were rife with conspiratorial content and misinformation, some promoted by Gab itself via its verified Twitter account”. Ozalp said that the ADL was not advocating for Twitter to completely ban Gab or links to Gab from its platform, instead advocating in favor of Twitter more effectively enforcing its current policies against misinformation and hate speech. Ozalp also said of Twitter that “Even if they are not acting like a knowing or willing contributor to anti-vax or anti-Semitism stuff, they are still playing a part in [the] dissemination of these conspiracy theories or hate, probably without wanting to do so”.
Twitter spokesperson Elizabeth Busby responded to the report by claiming that Twitter takes action against links to third-party websites that “would otherwise violate our policies if their content were posted directly on Twitter”, including COVID misinformation. Busby also said that “As ADL’s report acknowledges, we continue to improve our approach to mis- and disinformation”.
Later on October 11, Torba criticized the ADL’s report in a blog post, claiming that it was created in an attempt to “pressure Twitter to censor us”. He also accused the organization of being an “anti-Christ, Anti-American, and Anti-White hate organization”. In a statement, the ADL said that Torba’s response “is consistent with other statements from Gab” and that they “speak for themselves”. According to Ozalp, the report is part of a “longer running research series” by the ADL that will include more studies on other social media platforms.
In December , researchers at the University of Southern California Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences found that Gab users who shared similar moral values and beliefs with members of their immediate groups were more vulnerable to radicalization, including a higher likelihood of dissemination of hate speech and the use of language intended to dehumanize or threaten violence against users outside of their immediate groups.
A June report from the Stanford Internet Observatory found that “The deplatforming events following January 6 were a huge boost to Gab, and may have resulted in millions of dollars of income for Gab, potentially keeping it solvent.
Secondly, the report found that in and , Gab “had significant growth in anti-vaccine protest organizing, with ‘ trucker convoy ‘ groups having tens of thousands of members and high post volume. In early February , multiple media outlets falsely reported that former-President Trump had joined Gab under the handle realdonaldtrump.
Uncensored posts from the realDonaldTrump Feed”, had also caused confusion. We’ve always been transparent about this and would obviously let people know if the President starts using it”. In March , Forbes reported that representatives of former Senior Advisor Jared Kushner in January had asked for equity in Gab in exchange for Kushner’s father-in-law Trump joining the platform. Torba declined the offer, saying “No, I’m not entertaining that”.
In a June interview with far-right conspiracy theory website TruNews , Torba claimed that Kushner wanted Gab to remove antisemitic content and users from its platform before Trump could join, saying that “He called them Jew-haters, I called them Jew criticizers” and that “It’s a free-speech platform, so as long as you’re not saying anything illegal, as long as you’re not making threats of violence, you’re allowed to speak your mind and have an opinion about things, and I was not going to compromise on that position”.
No independent confirmation has been made that such a negotiation took place. In late July , Torba claimed in a Gab post that he was “getting flooded” with text messages from members of the U.
They aren’t just attacking me, they are attacking any and all dissent and opposition to their libido dominandi lust for power “. In August , Alex Kaplan of Media Matters for America noted that Torba “is trying to use his platform to sabotage coronavirus vaccination efforts”.
Anthony Fauci , and lies about the presidential election. One post, liked by more than 4, people, shows a gloating Trump under the line, ‘Show me a pic of pregnant Michelle Obama , and I’ll concede the election. As of March [update] , Gab has 4 million registered users. According to Micah Lee writing for The Intercept , the “vast majority” of registered Gab accounts are inactive, and the number of active users on the site is closer to , Rita Katz , a researcher and analyst of terrorism and extremism, wrote in Politico Magazine in October that Robert Bowers’ extreme antisemitic postings were “anything but an anomaly” on the website, and, “[they highlight] concerns about its growing facilitation of white nationalism and other far-right movements”.
She found that Gab user profiles often contained Nazi symbolism , and Stormfront users had praised the site as a place to post antisemitic content. Katz found that many Gab users were celebrating immediately after Bowers’ massacre against the Tree of Life synagogue, and wrote that far-right communities’ rise to popularity on Gab is “remarkably similar” to the rise of ISIS on social media.
Joshua Fisher-Birch of the Counter Extremism Project said in “Gab has always been attractive to fascist and neo-Nazi groups that advocate violence”. After setting up a fake account on Gab, the newspaper’s journalist Ben Weich was quickly “presented with a steady stream of Holocaust denial, antisemitic tropes and conspiracy theories — as well as those venerating Adolf Hitler”.
Posts he discovered included at least one user who used a swastika as their profile picture and stated: “The parasitic Jews will fully deserve the genocide that’s coming upon them” and “They do not deserve mercy, expulsion will never fix a rat problem, extermination does”.
In addition to allowing Holocaust denial and other forms of antisemitism, Gab has been used as a recruitment tool by several neo-Nazi and alt-right groups, including Identity Evropa , Patriot Front , and the Atomwaffen Division , a terrorist organization tied to a number of murders. Cultural Marxism , a far-right antisemitic conspiracy theory , is a popular topic on Gab. Gab itself has engaged in antisemitic commentary. On August 9, , in response to a post from Jewish political activist Brian Krassenstein calling for the shutdown of the site, Gab’s Twitter account responded with a post suggesting that it is unsurprising for a person with a Jewish last name to oppose “free speech”, followed by a tweet from the platform calling for “open borders for Israel”, a quote from former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke , and posted another tweet the same hour with a citation to a Bible verse Revelation that referred to Jewish non-believers of Jesus as members of the ” synagogue of Satan “.
One captioned a photo of two men, one with Jewish sidelocks , with “These two guys show up at your front door. Who do you let in and who do you call the cops on?
The tweets were later deleted. On January 14, , Molly Boigon from The Forward noted that Gab’s Twitter account had recently posted multiple tweets about Senior Adviser Jared Kushner’s supposed influence on then-President Trump, which she described as a nod to the antisemitic trope about global Jewish puppet masters.
Michael Jones. Oren Segal of the ADL said that the messages seemed “to show that Torba has a direct appreciation for individuals that promote antisemitism and hate”. Michael Jones, an antisemitic Catholic writer, calling him a “brilliant and faithful Christian man” who will be “one of the most respected thinkers of our time” when “we win.
The post states that “if you’re a White person living in America today and you don’t know what happened to the kulaks in russia [sic] years ago, you should look it up.
Something very similar is happening to you right now, and the same group of people is behind it. On October 19, , Torba used the Gab Twitter account to post a series of tweets which The Daily Dot characterized as a “wildly antisemitic tirade” with “several antisemitic canards related to Judeo—Bolshevism”.
According to the ADL, “Throughout October and early November , Torba used his own platform, Gab, which has considerably fewer content guardrails and restrictions than mainstream sites, to disseminate a plethora of antisemitic content. These posts often include vague references to ‘them’ or ‘the enemy’ and are framed by Torba’s Christian faith.
On November 4, , Torba reposted Gab user Jacob Wohl ‘s “suggestion” that all Jews should decorate their home with Christmas decorations during Christmas to assimilate into America’s Christian heritage.
One user responded by suggested that Jews control the Federal Reserve and that Jewish banker Jacob Schiff funded and orchestrated the Russian Revolution. Both suggestions are references to antisemitic tropes.
In January , Mira Fox from The Forward noted that Gab “has weaponized antisemitism and Christian extremism to foment insurrection”. Gab’s official policy states that the company has a “zero-tolerance policy towards threats of violence and use of our platform for criminal purposes”. Terrorism researcher and Queen’s University in Kingston, professor Amarnath Amarasingam has said that Gab’s position as neither extremely mainstream nor obscure service has allowed extremists to permeate the website and access an audience they would not be able to have on a more popular service, where they would be more likely to be banned.
Gab has denied that terror groups flourish on the website, saying in a statement to Motherboard in July “We don’t want them, we strongly discourage them from joining and we ban them when they cross the line, as they often do”. However, Ben Makuch of Motherboard wrote that neo-Nazi terrorist groups have “enjoyed months-long, unfettered stints posting their content on Gab to a significant audience”.
In addition to calls for terrorist attacks, mass killings against minorities, offline armed training recruitments and white supremacist propaganda accumulated on Gab, Makuch pointed to one Gab post, from a user who is a member of an multinational militant network on Gab connected to the Atomwaffen Division, that had explicitly called for its followers to attack electric grids.
Other content posted by the network included explicit calls for sympathizers to join local neo-Nazi organizations and commit violence against Muslim and Jewish communities. In June , two British men were arrested on terror offences for posting propaganda on Gab calling for their followers to assassinate Prince Harry. Gab claims that its platform does not restrict content unless the content is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
In January , Jazmin Goodwin of CNN described Gab’s moderation as “lax” and that this “approach on content has made way for a slew of QAnon conspiracy theories, misinformation and anti-Semitic commentary on the platform, among lots of vile hatred and racist posts — much of wouldn’t be allowed on today’s well-known social apps”. In a email, Torba said that “We tolerate ‘offensive’ but legal speech”, that “We believe that a moderation policy which adheres to the First Amendment, thereby permitting offensive content to rise to the surface, is a valuable and necessary utility to society.
When discussion crosses into direct and imminent threats of violence we will take action and work with our partners in law enforcement to mitigate any threats to the public. On December 14, , Apple Inc. Also on December 14, Twitter cut off Gab’s access to the Twitter API after Gab introduced a feature to its social network that allowed users to share their Gab posts directly to Twitter.
This is the monopoly and level of control that they have”. On October 27, , the day of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, PayPal, GoDaddy , and Medium terminated their relationship with Gab,  and PayPal released a statement that it had done so based on its review of accounts that may engage in the “perpetuation of hate, violence or discriminatory intolerance”.
Gab also said on Twitter that they expected their site to be down for weeks. Gab returned online on November 4, , after Epik agreed to register the domain, and Sibyl Systems Ltd. As of January [update] , Gab was still using Epik as a domain registrar. Instead of hosting its service in the cloud, The Wall Street Journal reported that Gab had been renting hardware in an undisclosed data center.
Gab was also using services from Cloudflare. Gab has been described as “Twitter for racists” by progressive news outlet Salon ,  a “hate-filled echo chamber of racism and conspiracy theories” by The Guardian ,  an “online cesspool of anti-Semitism” by Politico Magazine ,  a “safe haven for banned Twitter trolls, Gamergaters , Pizzagaters and high-profile white nationalists” by Mic ,  “the far-right’s favorite social network” by The Verge ,  “the Make America Great Again of social sites” by The New York Times  and “an almost anti-Twitter” by NPR.
Heidi Beirich, a director of the center, stated that the site is “the number one place nowadays where white supremacists gather”. Harrison Kaminsky of Digital Trends questioned the site’s longevity in September , writing: “While the site’s initial popularity is impressive, the potential is most likely short-lived, following the life cycle of social networks like Ello or Peach , which faded over time”. And since its debut in August, it has emerged as a digital safe space for the far right, where white nationalists, conspiracy-theorist YouTubers, and minivan majority moms can gather without liberal interference”.
Jeremy Carl of conservative magazine National Review opined in August “Contrast the free hand given to left-wing offensive speech to the strict controls put on right-wing speech. As just one of many examples, Gab— a free-speech social network that has grown rapidly to almost a quarter million users since its public launch just a few months ago, was just yesterday kicked off the Android app store it has already been repeatedly denied at Apple for “hate speech”.
To be clear, not all the voices on Gab are mellifluous, they have accepted a number of folks, often from the far right, who have been banned from other social networks though this is a small portion of Gab’s user base ” and “If Google and Apple are banning Gab, mainstream conservatives are crazy to think they are safe”. Chumley of conservative newspaper The Washington Times opined in October “with help from like-minded free thinkers, Gab can beat the leftists running these Internet sites at their own game — and in so doing, become the model for “what could one day be” for the conservative world on social media”.
He suggested that the website was only for those who “subscribe to a certain radical subset of right-wing beliefs or are interested in seeing the feeds of those who do”. The site exists less to defend the ideals of Benjamin Franklin than those of Christopher Cantwell. It chose as its logo a creature that looks rather like Pepe, the alt-right attack frog.
It courted people on the far right, and it became a haven for them. Free speech can be less a principle than a smokescreen”. Thompson noted that Robert Bowers likely expected affirmation from his last message that indicated his intent to carry out the Pittsburgh synagogue massacre, leading Thompson to the conclusion: “if it’s a platform where someone can expect affirmation for threatening slaughter, then why should anyone help it exist?
Nothing loads, the search function is a joke, and its member rolls are riddled with porn bots. And that’s even without the neo-Nazis posting racist memes and goading each other to murder”. Andrews of The Washington Post said that Gab “has welcomed extremist right-wing figures and believers of QAnon, the loose collection of conspiracy theories that touch on everything from politics to COVID”.
A search turns up user names featuring racial epithets , as well as antisemitic screeds, neo-Nazi fantasies and homophobic rants. Michael Edison Hayden, an open-source intelligence analyst and investigative reporter on extremism and disinformation , opined in a Gizmodo interview in October “Andrew Torba, the CEO of Gab, will get angry when people Violent white supremacist groups like Patriot Front and Atomwaffen Division organize out in the open on Gab.
Users frequently call for the murder of women, Jews and other minorities on Gab, and are rewarded with likes and reposts. Dylann Roof is treated as a hero by many Gab users”. Hayden noted that Gab was “rife with” content similar to that posted by Robert Bowers’, with many users posing in his support using the hashtag HeroRobertBowers.
Milo Yiannopoulos, an active user of Gab who joined after being deplatformed from Facebook and Twitter, complained in September about the low number of users on Gab, Parler, and Telegram.
He wrote on Telegram that, after losing his large fanbases on Facebook and Twitter, he was having difficulty sustaining his career due to the relatively small number of users on the alternative social networks. He described Gab as “relentlessly, exhaustingly hostile and jam packed full of teen racists who totally dictate the tone and discussion”.
In October , pro-Trump Republican pundit Bill Mitchell ran a poll on Gab asking if people would attend a Christian church where the pastor uses the word ” nigger ” in their sermons. More than 2, voted and nearly two-thirds answered “Yes”, prompting Mitchell to say on Gab that “As you can see from this poll so far, there are A LOT of racists on Gab” and that “It’s not just a small noisy group.
Mitchell called on Torba to ban racist users on Gab “or Gab will never be taken seriously by the general public. Mitchell later announced that he would leave Gab before changing his mind, saying “I think I’ll just stay on Gab forever”, “But from here on out, no more Mr.
Nice Guy. Gab is one of a number of alternative social network platforms, including Minds , MeWe , Parler, and BitChute , that are popular with people banned from mainstream networks such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Reddit, and Instagram. They noted there are also more ideologically neutral alt-tech platforms, such as Discord and Telegram. He distinguishes these from “co-opted platforms” such as DLive and Telegram, which were adopted by the far-right due to minimal moderation but not specifically created for their use.
Torba, who described himself in as a lifelong “conservative Republican Christian “, was previously removed from the Y Combinator alumni network in because of harassment concerns, starting when he used “build the wall” on Twitter alongside a screenshot of a post by a Latino startup founder that read: “being a black , Muslim or woman in the USA is going to be very scary”.
Take your morally superior, elitist, virtue signaling bullshit and shove it” and “I call it like I see it, and I helped meme a President into office, cucks”. In an interview with ABC News , Sanduja said that his wife, who works at a synagogue , had been doxed and received death threats while he worked at Gab: “apparently some of her personal information was found out and my family and I went through quite a lot of abuse, a systemic targeting from really vicious people, and honestly it just took a toll on us mentally”.
In December , Gab was headquartered in Austin, Texas. Gab earns revenue through premium subscriptions, donations, and affiliate partnerships. Gab originally did not use advertising, describing itself as an “ad-free social network”.
The company relied on the online crowdfunding broker StartEngine starting in Following its removal, the site relied on mail and cryptocurrency for subscription payment processing. Gab partnered with the “obscure” Second Amendment Processing for credit card payment processing in January , but removed credit card payment options in March of the same year. Two analysts contacted by the SPLC commented that this might suggest that “the SEC has concerns about allowing the sale to go forward”.
Torba did not respond to SPLC inquiries regarding the withdrawal. As of August , purchasing the GabPro subscription gave users the ability to upload videos of larger file sizes, the option to be verified on Gab, and a free email address from Gab’s email service. In September , Gab began showing “promoted posts” from affiliate partners. Users who purchase the GabPro subscription do not see the promoted posts. On June 19, , Torba claimed that him, his wife, and Gab had been “blacklisted” by Visa for “promoting hate speech”.
In response to user growth on Gab during the presidential election in November, Torba claimed in an email to Gab users on November 11 that “Gab isn’t growing because of ‘celebrity’ endorsements, sponsorships, or big paid advertising budgets, but rather from the most powerful form of advertising on the planet: word of mouth “. As of August , Gab accepts donations. As of , purchasing the GabPro subscription gave users “access to additional features such as the ability to apply for verification, schedule posts, get their own Gab TV channel and set posts to automatically delete after a specified period of time.
In , Gab’s color theme was a minimalist combination of black text on white panels with pink hashtags and usernames. Pro users had a contrasted top bar in dark blue. The interface displayed messages in a Twitter-like vertical scroll timeline with an option to upvote or downvote each post. The site also aggregated popular posts and trending topic hashtags. Default biographies for new users displayed a randomly chosen quotation about the importance of free speech.
In early , the option to downvote posts was temporarily removed from Gab, with the company’s then-COO Sanduja explaining that they were removed due to them being used to troll and to harass women, and also stated that: “there were a lot of social justice warriors and members of the far left coming into our site essentially trying to start a brouhaha”.
In , the default profile picture for new users to the site featured NPC Wojak , a meme popular on far-right websites. A frog named “Gabby” was Gab’s logo from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 9 August Social media website known for its mainly far-right user base. This article is about the social networking service. For other uses, see Gab.
Part of Jewish history and discrimination. Antisemitic canards. Antisemitic publications. Antisemitism on the Internet. Prominent figures.
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There is absolutely nothing you or any of the other powers and principalities can do to stop us. A look at the far-right social media platform backing Doug Mastriano”. Pennsylvania Capital-Star. August 4, Retrieved August 5, ABC News. Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved July 3, November 16, Archived from the original on November 28, Retrieved August 28, Retrieved November 13, USA Today.
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Archived from the original on May 2, Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original on January 18, Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved February 19, Archived from the original on November 26, BNN Bloomberg. October 4, Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved December 24, Mother Jones. Orlofsky, Steve ed. Archived from the original on May 10, Retrieved May 13, Archived from the original on October 30, October 27, Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved December 5, Retrieved October 27, They have given us until 9am on Monday to find a solution.
Gab will likely be down for weeks because of this. Working on solutions. We will never give up on defending free speech for all people” Tweet. Archived from the original on October 28, — via Twitter. Social media site used by Pittsburgh synagogue shooting suspect ‘being forced offline’ “. To cover this cost, you may have to pay some charges for updating 32 bit and 64 bit Windows 11 on your PC or laptop.
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Microsoft works 9 co to jest free
Quotation marks also known as quotesquote marksspeech marksinverted commasor talking marks   are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speecha quotationor a jwst. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and frwe closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character.
The single quotation mark is traced to Ancient Greek practice, adopted and adapted acdsee ultimate 10 keygen core free monastic copyists.
Microsoft works 9 co to jest free scriptores nostri microsoft works 9 co to jest free in libris ecclesiasticorum virorum ad separanda vel [ad] demonstranda testimonia sanctarum Scripturarum. Our copyists place this sign in the books of the people of microsort Church, to separate or to indicate the quotations drawn from the Holy Scriptures.
The double quotation mark derives from a marginal notation used in fifteenth-century manuscript annotations to indicate a passage of particular importance not necessarily a quotation ; the notation was placed in the outside margin of the page and was repeated alongside each line of the passage.
After the publication of Filelfo’s edition, the quotation marks for literal quotations prevailed. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century. The microsoft works 9 co to jest free of a pair of marks, opening and closing, at the level of lower case letters was generalized. By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific to each region.
In Western Europe the custom became to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity of each mark aimed outward. In Franceby the end of the nineteenth century, the marks were modified to an angular shape: «…». Some authors  claim that the reason for this was a practical one, in order to get a character that was clearly distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas, and the parentheses.
Also, in other scripts, the angular quotation marks are distinguishable from other punctuation characters: the Greek breathing marksthe Armenian emphasis and apostrophethe Arabic commathe decimal separatorthe thousands separatoretc. Other authors  claim that the reason for this was an aesthetic one. The elevated quotation marks created an extra white space before and after the word, which по этой ссылке considered aesthetically unpleasing, while the in-line quotation marks helped to maintain the typographical colorsince the quotation marks had the same height and were aligned with the lower case microsoct.
In Central Europethe practice was to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity aimed microsoft works 9 co to jest free. Alternatively, these marks could be angular and in-line with lower case letters, but still pointing inward: microxoft. The French tradition prevailed in Eastern Europe Russia, Ukraine, and Belaruswhereas the German tradition, or its modified version with the convexity of the closing mark aimed rightward, has become dominant in Southeastern Europee.
The reemergence of single quotation marks around came about as a means of indicating a secondary level of quotation. In American writing, quotation marks are normally the double kind the primary style. If quotation marks are used microzoft another pair of quotation marks, then single quotation marks are used.
For example: “Didn’t she say ‘I like red best’ when I asked her wine preferences? If another set of quotation marks is nested inside single quotation marks, double quotation marks aorks used again, and they continue to alternate as necessary though this is rarely done.
British publishing is regarded as microslft flexible about whether double or single quotation marks should be used. Different varieties and styles of English have different conventions regarding whether terminal punctuation should be written inside or outside the quotation marks. North Tto printing usually puts full stops and commas but not colons, semicolons, exclamation or question marks inside the closing quotation mark, whether it is part of the original quoted material or not.
The closing single quotation mark is identical in form to the apostrophe and similar to the prime symbol. The double quotation mark is identical to the ditto mark in English-language usage. It is also similar to—and often used to represent—the double prime symbol.
These all serve different purposes. Other languages have similar conventions to English, but use different symbols or different placement. Contemporary Bulgarian employs em dash or quotation horizontal bar followed by a space characer at the beginning of each direct-speech segment by a different character in order to mark direct speech in prose and in most journalistic question and answer interviews ; in such cases, the use of microsoft works 9 co to jest free quotation marks is left for in-text citations or to http://replace.me/26214.txt the names of institutions, companies, and sometimes also brand or model names.
Air quotes are also miccrosoft used in face-to-face communication in contemporary Bulgarian but usually resemble ” The standard form in the preceding table is taught in schools and used in handwriting. Neutral straight quotation marks, ” and micdosoftare used widely, especially in texts typed on computers and on websites. Although not generally common in the Netherlands any more, double angle guillemet quotation marks are still sometimes used in Belgium.
Some fonts, e. Verdanawere not designed with the flexibility to use ссылка English left quote as a German right quote. Such fonts are therefore typographically incompatible with this German usage. Double quotes are standard for denoting speech in German.
Double microsoft works 9 co to jest free angular quotes, »…»can also be used. Alternatively, an en-dash followed by a non-breaking space can be used to denote the beginning of quoted speech, in which case the end of the quotation is not specifically denoted see section Quotation dash below. A line-break should not be allowed between the en-dash and the first word of the quotation. French uses angle quotation marks guillemets micrsoft, or duck-foot quotesadding a micrisoft space’ [a] within the quotes.
Many people now use the non-breaking spacebecause the difference between a non-breaking space and a microsoft works 9 co to jest free is virtually imperceptible but also because the Unicode quarter-em space is breakableand the quarter-em glyph is omitted from many fonts.
Even more commonly, many people just put a normal breaking space between the quotation marks because the non-breaking space cannot be accessed easily from the keyboard; furthermore, many are simply not aware of this typographical refinement.
Using the wrong type of space often results in a quotation mark appearing alone at the beginning of a line, since the quotation mark is treated as an independent word. This parallels normal usage in other microspft, e. They were different from English quotes because they were standing like today’s guillemets on the baseline like lowercase lettersand not above it like apostrophes and English quotation marks or hanging down from it like commas.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, this shape evolved to look like small parentheses. The angle shape appeared later to increase the distinction and avoid confusions download windows download adobe 10 free cc for photoshop apostrophes, commas and parentheses in handwritten manuscripts submitted to publishers.
Also there was not necessarily any distinction of shape between the opening and closing guillemets, with both types pointing to the right like today’s French closing guillemets.
They must be used with non-breaking spacespreferably narrow, if available, i. Legacy support of narrow non-breakable spaces was done at rendering level only, without interoperability as provided microsoft works 9 co to jest free Unicode support.
In old-style printed books, when quotations span multiple lines of text including multiple paragraphsan additional closing quotation sign is fo used at the beginning of each line continuing a quotation; any right-pointing guillemet at the beginning of a microsoft works 9 co to jest free does not close the current quotation. This convention has been consistently увидеть больше since the beginning of the 19th century by most book printers, but is no longer in use today.
Such insertion of continuation quotation marks occurred even if there is a word hyphenation break. Given this feature has been obsoleted, there is no support for automatic insertion of these continuation guillemets in HTML or CSS, nor in word-processors. Old-style typesetting is emulated by breaking up the final layout with manual line breaks, and inserting the quotation marks at line start, much like pointy brackets before quoted plain text e-mail:.
Unlike English, French does not set off unquoted material within a quotation by using a second set of quotation marks. The French Imprimerie nationale cf. The use of English quotation marks is increasing in French and usually follows English rules, for instance in situations when the keyboard or the software context doesn’t allow the use of guillemets.
But the most frequent convention used in printed books for nested quotations is to style ejst in italics. Single wogks marks are much more rarely used, and multiple levels of quotations using jesst same marks is often considered confusing for readers:.
Further, running speech does not use quotation marks beyond the first sentence, as changes in speaker are indicated by подробнее на этой странице dash, as opposed to the English use of closing and re-opening the quotation. For other languages employing dashes, see section Quotation dash below. The dashes may be used entirely without quotation marks as well. In general, quotation marks are extended to encompass as much speech as possible, including not just nonverbal text such as “he said” as previously notedbut also as long as the conversion extends.
The quotation marks end at the last spoken text rather than extending to the end of paragraphs when the final micrsooft is not spoken. A closing quotation mark, »is added to the beginning of each new quoted paragraph. In Hungarian linguistic tradition the meaning of a word is signified by uniform unpaired apostrophe-shaped quotation marks:. A quotation dash is also used, and is predominant in belletristic literature.
The PWN rules state:. In specific uses, guillemets also appear. Guillemet marks pointing inwards are used for highlights and in case a quotation occurs inside a quotation. Guillemet marks pointing outwards are used for definitions mainly in scientific publications and dictionariesas well as for enclosing spoken lines and indirect speech, especially tk poetic texts. In Polish books and publications, this style for use of guillemets also known as »German quotes« is used almost exclusively.
In microsoft works 9 co to jest free to being standard for second level quotes, guillemet quotes are sometimes used as first level quotes in headings and titles but almost never in ordinary text in paragraphs. Another style of quoting is to use an em-dash to open a quote; this is used almost exclusively microsoft works 9 co to jest free quote dialogues, and is virtually the only convention used in works of fiction.
An en-dash is sometimes used in place of the em-dashespecially so in newspaper texts. Neither the Portuguese language regulator nor the Brazilian prescribe what is the wworks for quotation marks, they only prescribe when and how they should be used. In Portugalthe angular quotation marks   ex. They are the Latin tradition quotation marks, used normally by typographers. It is that also the chosen representation for displaying quotation marks in reference sources,    and it is also the chosen representation from some sites dedicated to the Portuguese Language.
The usage of curved quotation marks ex. This can be verified by the difference between a Portuguese keyboard which possesses a specific key for « and for » and a Brazilian keyboard.
The Portuguese-speaking African countries tend to follow Portugal’s conventions, not the Brazilian ones. In case of quoted material inside a quotation, rules and most noted style manuals prescribe the use of different kinds of quotation marks.
Pushkin wrote to Delvig: “Waiting for ‘Gypsies’, and publish at once. One of my acquaintances, a poet and literary critic, once jokingly said: ‘I prefer to read dictionaries than poems. The dictionary has the same words as in the poem, but is presented in a systematic way’.
It’s a joke, but ‘reading dictionaries’ is not as amazing and bizarre as it may seem. Spanish uses angled quotation marks comillas latinas or angulares as well, but always without the spaces. And, when microsoft works 9 co to jest free are nested in more levels than inner посмотреть больше outer quotation, microsoft works 9 co to jest free system is: .
Hispanic Americans often use them, owing to influence from the United States. Corner brackets are well-suited for ChineseJapaneseand Korean languages which are written in both vertical and horizontal orientations. China, South Korea, and Japan all use corner brackets when writing microsoft works 9 co to jest free. Usage differs when writing horizontally:.
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